THE TECHNOCRATIC VISION OF PEDAGOGICAL LEADERSHIP AND THE ANNIHILATION OF THE ETHICAL SUBJECT
The orientation of pedagogical leadership plays a crucial role in the education of an ethical subject. On the one hand, a constructive pedagogical leadership favours the necessary conditions for the development of an ethical subject. On the other, a technocratic pedagocial leadership favours its annihilation. The instrumental reasoning animating technocratic leadership is fundamentally incompatible with ethical reasoning. This article highlights this specific issue by examining information technologies and communication as well as the growing commercialization of education. We will demonstrate how this viewpoint insidiously curtails reflection and dialogue about ethical goals and consequently an uncritical ideal of a good life is promoted while the ethical subject is annihilated.
THE EDUCATION OF AN ETHICAL SUBJECT : DEVELOPING ETHICAL COMPETENCY IN SCHOOL
The Quebec curriculum issued by the Minister of Education, informed as it is by an approach by competency, defines the concept of competency as a "knowledge to act based on the mobilization and efficient use of an ensemble of resources". In this article, we argue in favour of a redefinition of this concept, at least insofar as it is concerned with the development of the person, so that within the school curriculum the responsibility of the school for developing an ethical subject can be ensured. Moreover, by working with the reconstructive ethic of Jean-Marc Ferry, we outline an integrated program for the education of an ethical subject in this field.
ETHICAL AND FEMINIST CONTRIBUTIONS TO CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION
While discussions on citizenship education are replete with a number of ethical goals expressing, for example, the education of democratic values, few discussions actually address the ethical frameworks of this education. We could even say that globally speaking, the connection between ethics and an education of citizenship remains for the most part unformulated. This article proposes a reflection on this education from an ethical and feminist perspective. Before engaging the discussion of this perspective, we first present the principle ministerial orientations in education of citizenship ; we then identify the implicit moral paradigm of these orientations and finally, we clarify certain paths for reflection on this paradigm with the work of two feminist philosophers : Nel Noddings and Iris Marion Young.
THE FUTURE OF THE EDUCATION OF THE ETHICAL SUBJECT : EDUCATING THE POLITICO-ETHICAL SUBJECT ? TOWARDS AN INTEGRATION OF MORAL EDUCATION AND CITIZENSHIP.
In this article we analyze a number of propositions from the Quebec government concerning school reform that clarify the options it retained concerning moral and citizenship education. With this analysis we endeavour to determine whether the proposed programs, as they are elaborated and presented, do in fact lead to the education of an ethical subject. By ethical subject we mean an autonomous subject who has, among other things, developed a capacity for critical reasoning allowing them to produce judgements of value concerning their own behaviour as well as the social reality in which they live, and especially, the ability to participate in social debates that affect the norms determining collective life. We argue that these programs do not meet this goal since the options that have been retained have diminished the dimension of moral education, opposing, in some respects, moral education with citizenship education, which should have been integrated. Moreover, since no clear choice of a structural axis of moral education has been proposed, the education of an ethical subject is compromised. To attain this goal, we propose, as many before us, that moral education and citizenship education should be integrated because ethical competencies are essential for the development of civic competencies, while ensuring an emphasis on decisional competencies and moral reasoning.
RELIGION IN THE PUBLIC SPHERE. A RETURN TO THE PROULX REPORT.
This article examines the effects, some three years later, of one of the most intense public debates that Quebec has known in recent history, provoked by the " Rapport Proulx " on the place of religion in schools. As much by its approach and treatment of the question as by its recommendations, the " Rapport Proulx " plunged Quebec into a universal debate over the major issues of modern thinking covering political, social and judicial philosophy as well as their most cherished themes : communatarianism and liberalism, fundamental rights and culture, pluralism and coexistence, collective rights and equality of citizens, etc. With its clear emphasis for laic schooling, it generated stark positions between " confessionalits " and " laics ". The government responded with its Bill 118 with corresponding changes to pedagogical structures ; we deliberate upon these effects for the survival of a field of education in high schools.
PSYCHOLOGY OF DELINQUENCY CONTRIBUTIONS TO MORAL EDUCATION.
Faced by students with anomic, even violent, behaviours, neither the psychoanalytic explanations nor the research into moral judgement provide adequate pedagogical remedial interventions. For this we must find other theoretical frameworks. Research in the psychology of delinquency opens a promising path. It helps identify the " educative " mechanisms by which families have blocked the introjection of norms, helps us understand why these students rebel against authority and how to generate a moral education founded on the support of the classroom. Under which conditions can a peer group compensate for the failure of fathers as well as the incoherencies of a family education by allowing for the co-construction of norms ?
DEVELOPMENT OF THE ETHICAL SUBJECT AND SCHOOL : BETWEEN CONSTRAINTS AND CONTRADICTIONS, OPEN PATHS
While the subject cannot exist without the institution, a subjects position emerging only through opposition to the latter, the latter is built on stability more than change and therefore resists the emancipation of the former. The school has greater ties with morality and moralizing than it does with an ethical subject and the development of an ethical competency. Herein lays the challenge for teachers interested in the development of ethical subjects. A prerequisite for them to manage uncertainty as well as the acceptance of ambiguity with respect to all action, not withstanding their own, is essential.
MYTHICAL NARRATIVES AND TRAGIC POEMS. CONSTRUCTING AN ETHIC FOR OUR TIME
This primary thrust of this article is to suggest an education of the ethical subject through the reading of the major mythical narratives and wisdom litterature of antiquity. Some preliminary considerations are presented first to suggest that moral education is less a transmission of an ethical knowledge and more the awakening of a desire for an ethical knowledge. From this perspective, the biblical figures of Cain and Abel, the Mesopotamian heroes Gilgamesh and Enkidu as well as Antigone, the great heroine of Greek tragedy, are presented. This presentation tries to avoid moralizing these narratives from an ethico-judicial rationality that would derobe them of their dramatic force. Instead, ethic should retain its tragic tension, its spiritual force and its rich wisdom.